국가 평균 IQ 순위

2004.05.21 12:58

윤태동 조회 수:6640

< The Impact of National IQ on Income and Growth >
Thomas Volken - University of Zurich
논문의 부록에 나타난 국가별 평균 IQ 순위

Country

IQ

Lynn/Vanhanen (n=122)

Volken (n=93)

Sierra Leone

64

x

x

Congo (Zaire)

65

x

x

Senegal

65

x

x

Guinea-Bissau

66

x

 

Zimbabwe

66

x

x

Gabon

66

x

 

Nigeria

67

x

 

Niger

67

x

x

Togo

69

x

x

Mali

69

x

x

Benin

69

x

x

Cameroon

70

x

x

Burundi

70

x

 

Rwanda

70

x

x

Malawi

71

x

x

Ghana

71

x

x

Cote d'Ivoire

71

x

 

Namibia

72

x

 

Haiti

72

x

x

South Africa

72

x

x

Chad

72

x

 

Jamaica

72

x

x

Tanzania

72

x

 

Kenya

72

x

x

Botswana

72

x

x

Uganda

73

x

x

Congo (Brazzaville

73

x

x

Zambia

77

x

x

Nepal

78

x

x

Barbados

78

x

x

Bahamas

78

x

 

Guatemala

79

x

x

Madagascar

79

x

 

Ecuador

80

x

x

Trinidad and Tobago

80

x

x

Bangladesh

81

x

x

Pakistan

81

x

x

India

81

x

x

Mauritius

81

x

x

Sri Lanka

81

x

x

Oman

83

x

 

Kuwait

83

x

x

Egypt

83

x

x

Bahrain

83

x

x

Belize

83

x

 

United Arab Emirates

83

x

 

Guyana

84

x

x

El Salvador

84

x

x

Iran

84

x

x

     

cont.

Country

IQ

Lynn/Vanhanen (n=122)

Volken (n=93)

Honduras

84

x

x

Algeria

84

x

x

Papua New Guinea

84

x

x

Nicaragua

84

x

x

Fiji

84

x

x

Dominican Republic

84

x

x

Tunesia

84

x

x

Paraquay

85

x

x

Bolivia

85

x

x

Morocco

85

x

 

Panama

85

x

x

Philippines

86

x

x

Burma (Myanmar)

86

x

x

Syria

87

x

x

Mexico

87

x

x

Jordan

87

x

x

Brazil

87

x

x

Indonesia

89

x

x

Venezuela

89

x

x

Colombia

89

x

x

Croatia

90

x

 

Turkey

90

x

x

Albania

90

x

 

Peru

90

x

x

Thailand

91

x

x

Costa Rica

91

x

x

Greece

92

x

x

Malaysia

92

x

x

Cyprus

92

x

x

Chile

93

x

x

Ireland

93

x

x

Bulgaria

93

x

 

Romania

94

x

 

Israel

94

x

x

Malta

95

x

x

Slovenia

95

x

 

Portugal

95

x

x

Uruguay

96

x

x

Ukraine

96

x

 

Russia

96

x

 

Slovakia

96

x

 

Argentina

96

x

x

Finland

97

x

x

Spain

97

x

x

Lithuania

97

x

 

Canada

97

x

 

Estonia

97

x

 

Czech Republic

97

x

 

Latvia

97

x

 

Denmark

98

x

x

Australia

98

x

x

France

98

x

x

Iceland

98

x

x

United States

98

x

x

Norway

98

x

x

Poland

99

x

x

Hungary

99

x

x

China

100

x

x

Belgium

100

x

x

United Kingdom

100

x

x

New Zealand

100

x

x

Luxembourg

101

x

 

Sweden

101

x

x

Switzerland

101

x

x

Austria

102

x

x

Italy

102

x

x

Netherlands

102

x

x

Germany

102

x

x

Singapore

103

x

x

Taiwan

104

x

x

Japan

105

x

x

Korea (South)

106

x

x



<결론>

In this paper I have explored the influence of national IQ on income and growth. In contrast to Lynn and Vanhanen, I find no empirical and statistically significant support for their claim that IQ is the most relevant factor explaining cross-country variations in income and growth. In the case of income, the authors simply fail to consider the influence structure of the explanatory variables, leading them to the wrong conclusion that economic freedom and the level of democracy account for only a small amount of the variance explained.
Furthermore, Lynn and Vanhanen confuse IQ with human capital. Once one controls for the educational opportunity structure, the link between IQ and income disappears.
Also, their case for economic growth and IQ is not supported by the empirical evidence presented for the two growth periods 1976-1998 and 1983-1996. Once control variables are entered, and a more theoretically adequate growth model is specified, the effect of national IQ levels on growth cannot be substantiated. Therefore the correlation between IQ and growth which has been found by Lynn and Vanhanen must be considered as spurious. In short, the simple message is that national IQ has neither an effect on income nor on economic growth.
In the light of these findings, it is hardly worthwhile for any researcher to further consider national IQs as an engine of economic development and growth. If the IQ effect is spurious, why should we still bother? Firstly, the answer of course has to do with the questionable research methods applied by Lynn and Vanhanen. Secondly, part one of Lynn and Vanhanen’s argument - however weak its methodological fundament may be - must be subject to strict scientific tests. Polemics alone will not advance the knowledge of the scientific community.
* 윤태동님에 의해서 게시물 이동되었습니다 (2004-06-29 06:19)

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